Wednesday, 31 October 2012

OUGD504 // Design for print // Understanding Colour for Print & Web

Even though this is talking about colour in the terms of web design, the terminology and meaning of each element of colour, is the same for print as well, just the application of it will be different.

Hue is the most basic of color terms and basically denotes an object’s color. When we say “blue,” “green” or “red,” we’re talking about hue. The hues you use in your designs convey important messages to your design.
The primary hue of the background and some of the typography on the Happy Twitmas website is bright red.

Using a lot of pure hues together can add a fun and playful look to a design, as done in the header and elsewhere on this website.

Chroma refers to the purity of a color. A hue with high chroma has no black, white or gray in it. Adding white, black or gray reduces its chroma. It’s similar to saturation but not quite the same. Chroma can be thought of as the brightness of a color in comparison to white.
In design, avoid using hues that have a very similar chroma. Opt instead for hues with chromas that are the same or a few steps away from each other.

Cyan has a high chroma and so really stands out against black and white.

Colors with very high chroma are best used in moderation, as done here

Saturation refers to how a hue appears under particular lighting conditions. Think of saturation in terms of weak vs. strong or pale vs. pure hues.
In design, colors with similar saturation levels make for more cohesive-looking designs. As with chroma, colors with similar but not identical saturations can have a jarring effect on visitors.

The saturation levels of many of the different hues used here are similar, adding a sense of unity to the overall design.

An excellent example of how using a hue with a high saturation against a background with low saturation can make the former really stand out.

Value could also be called “lightness.” It refers to how light or dark a color is. Ligher colors have higher values. For example, orange has a higher value than navy blue or dark purple. Black has the lowest value of any hue, and white the highest.
When applying color values to your designs, favor colors with different values, especially ones with high chroma. High contrast values generally result in more aesthetically pleasing designs.

The high value of the yellow used here really stands out against the lower-value black and gray.

This website combines blue hues with two different values. Because the different values have enough contrast, the overall look is visually appealing.

Tones are created when gray is added to a hue. Tones are generally duller or softer-looking than pure hues.
Tones are sometimes easier to use in designs. Tones with more gray can lend a certain vintage feel to websites. Depending on the hues, they can also add a sophisticated or elegant look.

Tones can give websites a sophisticated look while adding some vintage and antique flair.

Tones can be intensified by adding gray around them, as done here.

A shade is created when black is added to a hue, making it darker. The word is often incorrectly used to describe tint or tone, but shade only applies to hues made darker by the addition of black.
In design, very dark shades are sometimes used instead of black and can serve as neutrals. Combining shades with tints is best to avoid too dark and heavy a look.

Jonathan Moore’s website has a variety of different shades of purple in the background (and a couple of tints in other parts).

An effective combination of shades and tints, particularly in the header.

A tint is formed when white is added to a hue, lightening it. Very light tints are sometimes called pastels, but any pure hue with white added to it is a tint.
Tints are often used to create feminine or lighter designs. Pastel tints are especially used to make designs more feminine. They also work well in vintage designs and are popular on websites targeted at parents of babies and toddlers.

The blue tint on Fernando Silanes’s website creates a soft and sophisticated look.

Tints combined together make for a sophisticated gradient.

While you don’t necessarily have to remember all of these technical terms, you should be familiar with the actual concepts, especially if you want to master part 3 of this series (in which we create our own color schemes). To that end, here’s a cheat sheet to jog your memory:

- Hue is color (blue, green, red, etc.).
- Chroma is the purity of a color (a high chroma has no added black, white or gray).
- Saturation refers to how strong or weak a color is (high saturation being strong).
- Value refers to how light or dark a color is (light having a high value).
- Tones are created by adding gray to a color, making it duller than the original.
- Shades are created by adding black to a color, making it darker than the original.
- Tints are created by adding white to a color, making it lighter than the original.

OUGD504 // Design for print //Designing for print

We’ve all had the painful experience of being handed a brochure that was “designed” with Word Art (or the slightly less painful Pages). The “designer” (we’ll call him Larry) beams, happy to see that his arched, distorted, glowing type is burning holes in your hands. You wouldn’t make those mistakes, would you? Of course not! You are an experienced designer, right?

Right. That’s what Larry says.

Some of the best designers have been tripped up by simple mistakes when designing for print. Obviously, we aren’t just talking about WordArt. We’re talking about a design that looks great on the screen, but it sits next to Larry’s best when you try to transfer it to paper. These are some common mistakes that many designers unknowingly make when coming to the print world.

1. Designing in RGB

CMYK color

RGB color

The Problem

It is important to know that printers have eyes. Well… Sort of. Printers interpret data that is sent to them from an application or a device. That application or device outputs using a certain language, called a color space. The printer interprets the output, and then prints. So let’s say your Macbook Pro and CS4 are speaking Spanish, but your printer is speaking English. What basically happens: the printer listens, hears the Spanish, and tries its best to interpret it. Now, despite the fact that your printer may have taken AP Spanish in high school, it still doesn’t know every word in the dictionario.

The Fix

Fortunately, it’s fairly easy to fix this problem. On the first opening screen in Photoshop and Illustrator, you have the choice of working in RGB or CMYK. Pick CMYK if your design will ever make it to the print world.

A word about color spaces…
Without going much into detail, RGB refers to two different color gamuts (sRGB and Adobe RGB), both based on modeling light to produce colors. Red, green, and blue light can theoretically be added together to create any color of light, the “100%” mixture resulting in white. The natural “blank canvas” of RGB is black, or an absence of light.

On the other hand, CMYK is based on mixing four colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and “key,” an old printing press term for black) to theoretically reproduce any color. The natural blank canvas for CMYK is paper.

Unfortunately, there are colors that cannot be reproduced in the gamut of CMYK that exist in the gamut of RGB, particularly brighter colors, especially in the cyan area. This is where we run into our problem. Simply put, RGB speaks better spanish than CMYK. There’s tons of literature on color management available online or in print. (Note: CMS, in the print world, stands for color management system.)

2. Forgetting to use Rich Black

The Problem

If there is an unforgivable sin, this would be it. Again, a simple understanding of CMYK is needed.
A printer takes the CMYK info it is sent and puts out ink according to that info. CMYK value refers to a set of 4 numbers between one and 100 representing the amount of each color mixed in to achieve the desired color. So you would immediately guess that k=100 would mean black, right?
Larry said so.

K=100 produces a dark grey that is definitively not black.

The Fix

Once again, easy fix; use values for rich black. Rich black mixes in some cyan, magenta, and/or yellow to darken the 100% Key. There are many different opinions on what is best, but there are basically two kinds; warm and cool. Generally accepted values (in order of CMY) are 70, 50, 30 (known as “designer black”), 60, 40, 40 (cool black) and 40, 60, 40, (warm black). All of these are mixed with k=100.

Some people say that a “C” value of 40 and a k value of 100 does the trick just fine; the point is to add some kind of extra into your blacks to make them… well, black.

Do NOT use rich black for smaller text; registration problems (where one cmyk ink prints slightly in the wrong place) will make your text unreadable. And no one wants that. Usually using k=100 for black text is readable enough.

Another neat trick: if your text is large enough that you want to use rich black, but is just small enough that registration may pose a threat, outline your text with .5 or 1 pt of k=100. This will take care of the registration problems. Note: the outline should be on the inside and should replace the original area it lays over, so that your text is not improperly displayed.

3. Using the wrong resolution

A low resolution will show pixelation both on screen and in print

Using high-resolution images ensures clarity

The Problem

Using the wrong resolution in your works can be detrimental to your final outcome. It is important to know the final destination of your work so that you can design at the correct resolution. Most printers print at about 300dpi (dots per inch), some even at 600dpi or above. The resolution of a monitor is 72ppi (pixels per inch), and is a default setting in Photoshop and Illustrator for RGB design.

A few things to note…

So let’s talk about some basic differences between dpi and ppi, and then decide what is best to use for different projects.

Simply put, pixels are square, dots are… well, dots. They consist of one color. Obviously, the more dots or pixels per inch, the more detailed and accurate your picture will be. It is important to design at 300ppi so that when you print on a 300 dpi printer, each pixel is translated as a dot. It is okay to design at a higher ppi than your printer’s dpi, but be careful designing below 300ppi.

The Fix

Unless you are designing something huge, the magic number for print design is… you guessed it, 300dpi. Generally, anything that you can hold in your hands should be designed at or above 300dpi. It is especially important to note that though you can go down in dpi, you cannot go up without quality loss (when working with rasterized elements). Therefore, as long as your processor can handle it, it is best practice to work at 300 dpi or the maximum for your specific printer.

Depending on the size of a particular piece, you may have to design for perspective resolution. In other words, a billboard, from the road, appears to be a couple of inches wide, so therefore the dpi can be much lower (often around 18-20 dpi).

Other designing for print tips:

Colour space 
Files intended to print in four-colour process should be supplied in the DeviceCMYK colour space, and contain only cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Any objects in RGB, calibrated RGB or LAB must be converted before being imported into your layout application. 

Total Area Coverage (TAC) 
Combined colour values should not exceed 300 per cent. This may be required to be lower depending on the paper being printed on. This TAC applies to pictures printed in colour - 300 per cent in the darkest areas. 

Image specification 
Resolution and size 
Colour and greyscale continuous-tone images should be saved at 300dpi at a print size relevant to its final size on the page. Bitmap images (linework) should be saved at at least 1200dpi and preferably 2400dpi. Resolutions lower than this or images smaller than the final size on the page will lead to a loss of quality. 

Format and Compression 
Ideally, images should be saved as TIFFs, but JPEG compression can be used to reduce file size. I do not recommend the use of RAW files from digital cameras or PhotoShop .psd files as results can be unpredictable if not properly handled. 
JPEG compression is a "lossy" format where pixel information is thrown away to reduce file size. Algorithms rebuild the discarded data when the file is decompressed. LZW compression within the TIFF format is a lossless method, replacing repeating code with a tag which is replaced when the file is decompressed. 

Vector graphics
Files originated in vector-based illustration software such as Adobe Illustrator should have all fonts embedded or outlined. The colour space should be CMYK and all transparency must be flattened. 

Placing graphics
When you place pictures in your layout application allow a "safety margin" between the edge of the picture box and any part of the image that is not meant to appear. This will avoid "rebates", particularly noticeable when you place keylines around your images. 

Do not style fonts bold and/or italic using the styling buttons in your layout application. Always select the styled version of the font from the font list. If this is not possible, remember that not all fonts have bold and italic versions.Your screen does not recognise this and will display them regardless of whether italic or bold printer fonts exist (common examples are symbol fonts such as Zapf Dingbats or Symbol, for which there are no italic or bold printer fonts). With no associated printer font, a styled screen font will output unstyled, as the default font or not at all. Do not trust your screen - always check that Printer fonts are available before styling bold and/or italic 
Outline and shadow text created by style menus should be avoided. Most desktop printers will not successfully show the final printed result, and you may get unexpected or undesirable results.

Fine lettering 
Thin lines, rules, medium and small type sizes should be reproduced at 100% (solid) of only a single colour wherever possible. 
Do not use rules defined as "Hairline" in your DTP application. Desktop printers and similar devices will not give an accurate representation of a hairline rule on your proofs. 
Keep to a minimum rule weight of 0.25pt for a solid single colour. 

Reversed out lettering 
Reversed 1-1 out lettering, or knocked-out type, should be out of a minimum of colours. Type or objects smaller than 10pt in size should ideally be reversed out of one colour only. Small letters reversed out of multiple colours - particularly fonts with fine serifs - will show colour in white type areas even with the slightest mis-registration on press. Check to ensure that reversed-out lettering does not become illegible due to the text's background. 

Tints and backgrounds 
If you wish to reproduce a large solid black background I would recommend that the black prints at 100 per cent, along with a 40 per cent cyan tint to provide more density. This is often referred to as a "shiner", and produces what is sometimes called a "rich black". 
The inclusion of a common colour background or strap heading across several pages of a feature or sections of a magazine can draw attention to the natural minor variations in colour balance that occur across a press/presses and during a press run. This can be minimised by creating these common colours out of as few process colours as possible. Give careful consideration to the use of one, or perhaps two colours to produce the common colour. Such a colour will enable a more consistent reproduction than the same object defined using all four process colours. However, certain two-colour combinations can also be prone to unattractive colour shifts - particularly when both colour values are midtones. Two-colour combinations where one colour is considerably higher than the other prove more stable, producing a more consistent, balanced result. 
To assure accurate reproduction on press it is advisable to supply a colour swatch or contract-colour proof. 

Tracking occurs when ink is consumed by an area of a sheet with a high percentage of one or more colours, creating a deficiency of that colour within a later area running in track. This effect is more evident on heavy tint areas running across the sheet. To avoid the effects of tracking it is important to consider the final imposition and design your layout accordingly. 

Black overprint 
100% black elements will automatically overprint other colours. This prevents normal black text knocking "holes" in tints. Therefore, it is important that larger 100% black page elements, such as boxes or very large point size text, do not have variations in colour beneath them. These will show through in the printed page. Alternatively a "shiner" (see above) can be used to produce a heavier, more consistent solid. If a black element is overprinting a four-colour image, include at least 1% pf CMY in your black to ensure the picture does not show through the black. 

Trims and Bleeds 
All page content that runs to the edge of the page must extend off the page by a minimum distance of 3 mm. This minimum distance is referred to as bleed. If bleed is not applied there is a risk of an unsightly white area appearing at the bleed edge. 
Elements that do not bleed should be a minimum distance of 5 mm from the edge of the page. This is referred to as the margin. Elements closer to the edge than this standard risk being trimmed off during the finishing process. 
Do not attempt to place text sitting exactly on the trim - you will almost certainly be disappointed with the finished trimmed result. 
Consideration should be given to the binding style when setting the margins. 
For perfect-bound titles consideration should be given for the area in the backs lost in the spine glueing. 
For wire-stitched titles remember that larger paginations cause "bulking" resulting in the centre pages of the magazine being considerably shorter in width than the pages at the front and back. The uneven fore-edge is trimmed away after it is stitched. You may wish to allow a larger fore-edge margin in such cases or a larger margin in the backs to allow for "feathering" at the imposition stage. Pages that read across the spine cannot be feathered so attention must be paid to the fore-edge to avoid important content being trimmed away. Check with your Production Controller at Headley Brothers for advice on how to proceed. 
Particular attention must be paid to the covers of perfect-bound magazines. The cover is glued along the spine and attached to the first and last page of the contents and can lose an area of around 6-8 mm in the "hinge". Check the Downloads Page for the PDF "DPS For Covers Template" that will guide you in dealing with this. 

Perfect Binding 
Paginations below 56 pages are not suitable for perfect binding. Depending on the weight and bulk of the paper, fewer pages than this do not produce a spine of a viable width for the perfect binding process. Please consult your Production Controller for advice. 

Elements across spreads 
Accurate alignment of elements that go across a spread cannot be guaranteed. Items that can look bad across spreads on a final printed result are: rules; tint edges (especially diagonals); text and lineart. If it is necessary to run a line of text across a spread make sure the spine falls between words. 
This is even more evident in perfect-bound titles which cannot be opened out flat. There is always a certain amount of the page in the backs that cannot be seen. To overcome this, pages which cross a spread should be "thrown out". Check with your Production Controller at Headley Brothers for advice on how this is achieved. 

Ink Rubbing 
Ink can be transferred through abrasive contact on press and bindery handling systems during the manufacturing process. Matt and silk/satin papers are particularly susceptible to ink rubbing. Consideration can be given to this at the design stage. Where possible avoid facing pages of heavy ink coverage against white, unprinted pages. 
Where possible avoid designs where the outside front cover is heavily inked and the outside back cover has large areas of white space or vice versa. 
If this is unavoidable, consider a seal, which can sometimes prevent marking. 

Web growth 
Paper has a tendency to expand as it absorbs moisture and shrink when it loses moisture. In the heatset web offset process heat is applied to the paper in order to flash off solvent and dry the ink. After heating the paper is cooled, and a layer of silicone emulsion is applied to "recondition" it. The heating of the paper removes a percentage of the moisture content which cannot be replaced in the printing process. The width of the web will have reduced by several millimetres when it leaves the press, which results in about one millimetre of shrinkage per page. 
In sheetfed printing the opposite occurs. Paper takes up water in the printing process and may stretch due to water absorption. 
When sheetfed covers are bound with web offset sections, the covers are trimmed flush with the inner sections. After the trimming the covers release moisture into the air and the web offset sections absorb moisture from the air. The covers may shrink slightly and the web sections will grow and hence show a difference in size. Since the industry-accepted best-practice is to run paper grain parallel to the spine, web growth beyond the sheetfed cover will normally be evident on the fore-edge. 
This effect is common within the printing industry and is most often seen when sheetfed covers are bound with web offset sections. 
It may be possible to minimise the impact of this effect by careful design of the cover and page one of the content. Speak to your Production Controller at Headley Brothers for advice.

I generally support the notion of designing in an RGB colour mode ― for print and web regarding imagery that is to be printed in CMYK. Some of you reading this may know what I’m talking about and agree wholeheartedly, yet I suspect that some of you would ask yourself:

Why would I ever design in RGB for printed material that will be printed in CMYK ― or even CMYKOG (Hexachrome®)?

Moreover, some may have heard about initially designing in RGB for print before, tried it ― and never did it again ― offering a statement such as this:

I tried designing in RGB ― but all the colours just turned out muddy when I converted it. That’s the last time I’m trying that again…

A valid point. But to prove my case, I will start at the beginning and explain why, in the majority of cases, I design in RGB in the initial design stages of print work. Of coarse I send my files off to the printers in CMYK, but this article is about how the initial file setup in an RGB colour profile can benefit designers.
You may ponder as to why anyone would design in RGB, when the final output is in CMYK. This is like saying:

Why should I mix the ingredients to make fresh cake, when I can go to the shops and buy one ready-made?

Well, the answer to this is quality. If you design in RGB, you have a larger colour gamut to work with, as well as many additional benefits:

Benefits of Designing in RGB

- RGB File Sizes are about 25% smaller than CMYK

- Many filters and functions are only available to use in an RGB colour mode in PhotoShop® and similar programs.

- The RGB colour gamut is larger than CMYK

- Working in RGB means that your images are web-ready with no colour conversion (as opposed to designing for print in CMYK and converting the colour to RGB for web-use).

Benefits of Designing in CMYK

- When designing in RGB, there will have to be a conversion to CMYK at a calculated time near the completion of an image. Sometimes, the colour of the image can change appearance due to this conversion. If you work directly in CMYK, there will be no such conversion ― and therefore, no colour loss.

-  er…

- and….

OUGD504 // Design for print // Printing Techniques

Embossing and dembossing are similar processes that create a different result. Both processes involve making a metal plate and a counter. The plate is mounted on a press and the paper is stamped between the plate and counter. This force of pressure pushes the stock into the plate, creating the impression.

Embossing produces a raised impression on your paper stock, while debossing creates a depressed impression.

Things to remember when designing for a piece that includes embossing/debossing:

Be aware that embossing is a mechanical process that manipulates the paper stock, so by default, it will also manipulate your design.
Set your type with more space between letters than usual. If you put them too close to one another, they can merge and become one element once the embossing has been done. Embossing makes design elements look smaller and reduces the sharpness of smaller items.
There are two ways you can emboss your work at home: dry embossing and heat embossing.

Dry embossing, also called relief embossing, is done by tracing a stencil with some paper over it with a special tool called a stylus to get the raised effect on it.

Heat embossing, also referred to as stamp and heat embossing, is done by stamping an image on a piece of paper, sprinkling powder over the stamped image, and then applying heat.

Silk Lamination/Lamination
Silk lamination provides a soft, silk-like finish, is water-resistant and tear-resistant, and complements vibrant colors. Pieces are traditionally printed in full-color, like any regular business card, however one additional step is taken to get their unique texture — the cardstock is coated with a durable, weather-resistant, silk laminate

Lamination can be a liquid that dries to a tough gloss or dull surface, or it can be a film. Both adhere to the surface to protect it and give it a sheen or a muted effect. The effect could be glossy, dull, or even satin (a look that’s in between glossy and dull).

A varnish is a liquid coating applied to a printed surface to add a clear glossy, matte, satin, or neutral finish. Here are the types of varnishes:

Varnish Type Description
Gloss Varnishing - A gloss varnish gives the printed surface a glossy, sheen look.

Matte Varnishing - A matte varnish gives the printed surface a non-glossy, smooth look.

Silk or Satin Varnishing - A satin varnish gives the printed surface a neither a high gloss or matte, but the middle ground.

UV Varnishing - Ultraviolet (UV) varnishing is a process for achieving an even more striking type of coating on your printed material.

All-over UV varnish - Simply put, this is a UV seal applied all over the printed surface.

Spot UV Varnish - A spot varnish is applied to chosen spots (areas) of a printed piece. This has the affect of highlighting and drawing attention to that part of the design.

To get the gold /silver stamp, a foil layer is affixed to a certain material by a heating process. It isn’t too complicated of a process and getting the files ready are quite similar to uv-spot printing. See my guide on preparing files for print as a reference and talk with your printer about how to supply the files. Foil printing normally requires vector images and/or outlined fonts of what you want to have stamped.

Thermography produces raised printing similar in appearance to engraving, but using a different process for attaining the effect.

In thermography, a special powder is added to the ink that is to be printed on the paper. The printed piece is heated, causing the powder and ink mixture to dry, which in turn results in a raised effect on the paper.

Die Cut
Die cut involves cutting irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die. A die can be used in printing for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing. Dies are normally custom pieces, but your printer will usually have some standard dies (such as for rounded corners) available if you don’t need a custom template; check with your printer to see what they have — it may help reduce the cost of printing a special piece.

Letterpress is the oldest printing process. In this method, a surface with raised letters is inked and pressed to the surface of the printing substrate to reproduce an image in reverse.

Typically, metal type has been used, but other possibilities include carved wood or stone blocks. Most popularly used on wedding invitations, this process can also be used to create unique business cards as well as other custom printed products.

Silk Screening
Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that allows ink to transfer onto the material. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas.

Printing Technique Summary
Here are the 8 printing techniques mentioned in this guide.

Embossing/Debossing - Embossing creates a raised impression on stock, debossing creates a depressed impression on stock.

Silk Lamination/Lamination - Silk lamination provides a soft, silk-like finish, is water-resistant, is tear-resistant, and complements vibrant colors. The effect could be glossy, dull, or satin.

Varnish - A varnish is a liquid coating applied to a printed surface to add a clear glossy, matte, satin, or neutral finish.

Foil - A foil layer is affixed to a certain material by a heating process.

Thermography - Thermography produces raised printing similar in appearance to engraving.

Die Cut - Die cut involves cutting irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.

Letterpress - A surface with raised letters is inked and pressed to the surface of the printing substrate to reproduce an image in reverse.

Silk Screening - A printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that allows ink to transfer onto the material.

Thursday, 25 October 2012

OUGD501 // Lecture 3 // Panopticism

‘Literature, art and their respective producers do not exist independently of a complex institutional framework which authorises, enables, empowers and legitimises them. This framework must be incorporated into any analysis that pretends to provide a thorough understanding of cultural goods and practices.’
Randal Johnson in Walker & Chaplin (1999)

-social control
-interesting infinity of the last 2 lectures
-institutions and the physical presence they have within them - prison, army, police. Organised practices.
-designers make stuff and use inspiration, but really work within institution and produce work, which authorises what they do.
-Understanding culture helps this.


- discipline
- power
- torture

T h e P a n o p t i c o n

Michel Foucault
Madness & Civilisation - 
Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison - emergence of prison as a institute 
The lecture is based around these two books

(late 1600's)
'Houses of correction’ to curb unemployment and idleness

- going back to middle ages there was no strict conception of madness. They tolerated this within the society, they were the fabric of society. There was no division of sane and insane. 

- In 1600's a new sensibility emerged, a new attitude to work and the social value of work from the moral sense. Not only to make stuff for society but to make things better.

- people that were socially useless, that couldn't work or produce for society - they were a problem for society. Houses of correction were built - like a factory/prison. All the socially useless were put in these houses - drunkereds, criminals, diseased, single mothers, pregnant women, here they would be put to work and made to work, if they wouldn't they were beaten. This was to make people better.

The insane would corrupt the sane and it was seen as an error, so they built a specialist prison/house. It was like a hospital, but was called an asylum. This would house the insane and cure them. These institutions worked to correct the in mates by using more stubble techniques they were tactically treated like children, if they were well behaved and do what they were supposed to do they were rewarded, if not they were told off by a stern figure. They wanted to stubbily train people to be sane, by looking at how they respond.

- The emergence of forms of knowledge – biology, psychiatry, medicine, etc,  legitimise the practices of hospitals, doctors, psychiatrists. 
- Doctors were highly positioned at this time, because they were seen as an expert. 

- Foucault aims to show how these forms of knowledge and rationalising institutions like the prison, the asylum, the hospital, the school, now affect human beings in such a way that they alter our consciousness and that they internalise our responsibility.

- This was the way in how they wanted to change the ways of the inmates - they would learn to behave how they wanted to because if they did they got reward and thats what they wanted. This way of working and training people worked and changed the in mates of the houses.

- Be spectacular and grizzly as possible, the discipline was seen as a high profile, if you were bad behaved or did bad things to the society then you would be discipled which is shown above. They knew what the punishiment was and it was publicly shown to the citizens, which made them think no to do it because they didn't want that treatment in front of everyone.

Punishment management.

The states power of how to punish them and this showed the citizens again on what would happen to them if they didnt follow the discipline.

Discipline is a ‘technology’ [aimed at] ‘how to keep someone under surveillance, how to control his conduct, his behaviour, his aptitudes, how to improve his performance, multiply his capacities, how to put him where he is most useful: that is discipline in my sense’ (Foucault,1981 in O’Farrrell 2005:102)

This worked around not having discipline as a punishment of something physical but be a mental punishment. 
Known as Panopticisim 

Known as Panopticisim is was named this because of the building Panopticon which was proposed in 1791 by Jeremy Benthanms.
It was designed as a multifunctional building - hospital, asylum, prison, etc

Located in Cuba

Design of the panopticon 

Modern Panopticon - prison.
Can see the cells around the edge, each cell is open form the front, each cell has a window in the back to light it up from behind. Each cell has one individual. The cell is walled around every side except the front.
This has a mental effect on the individual inside it, it was the perfect institution because they are consistently staring into the middle, which holds a central tower with supervisors in it. The inmates can't see each other, just the constant presence of the guards in the middle. Which effect the inmates.

Opposite to the dungeon. Dungeon is where you hide and lock away the deviant classes, lock them away and forget about them, repress the demons.
Panoptican - light, everything is opposite to the dungeon. Object of scrutiny and observation

View from the cell, all you can see it the main tower in the middle. As you are constantly reminded by the supervision from the tower, you never behaviour in a bad way because you think you are always watched. If you rebel you will be spotted and caught out, so inmates are constantly put in line. 
There is no one to look at and see there response. Internal physiology within yourself. 
In every way this building works for every use it could be used for.

The Panopticon internalises in the individual the conscious state that he is always being watched. 

‘Hence the major effect of the Panopticon: to induce in the inmate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power.’
(Foucault, 1975)
Some panopticans have blinds over the tower, so the inmates didnt know if there was guards in there or not, but it still makes them think they are constantly being watched. Eventually no staff are needed within it, because the inmates always think someone is there watching them, so they behave.

- Allows scrutiny
- Allows supervisor to experiment on subjects
- Aims to make them productive

- Reforms prisoners
- Helps treat patients
- Helps instruct schoolchildren 
- Helps confine, but also study the insane
- Helps supervise workers
- Helps put beggars and idlers to work.

INSTITUTIONAL GAZE, within the panoptican. Within it they act up the ways of the institution, they behave in the way they think they want them to, without anyone forcing them to.

- What Foucault is describing is a transformation in Western societies from a form of power imposed by a ‘ruler’ or ‘sovereign’ to……….. A NEW MODE OF POWER CALLED “PANOPTICISM”

- The ‘panopticon’ is a model of how modern society organises its knowledge, its power, its surveillance of bodies and its ‘training’ of bodies.

- For it work, must understand that always under scrutiny and being watched all the time.

Open plan office, makes people want to share and get along as big gang. But really it was less social because they were always working and thinking someone is always watching you. Discipline yourself and make yourself do more work etc because you think you should be and not slacking off.

People in the office know there is a camera following them around and always being scrutinised. They start to think that they should work in a certain way because they are being watched and playing up to the camera.

Observation bubble in the middle of the classroom, watching the students from inside

Open plan bar, everything is visible and can see everything. You are always on display and can be watched by anyone in the bar. Bouncers, bar staff etc can see your behaviour and you dont want to be thrown out. 
Closed areas, away from scrutiny, much more closed in and an area where you cant be watched so behave how you want.

Google maps - surveillance from above. Always being watched by someone, being able to look from street level and being able to look at houses and into the windows from a computer.

Every action in our life is being recorded - alters and changes our behaviour.

Educate and inform within a lecture. Wings within the lecture hall. In each seat has a barrier, so each student cant talk or see anyone else. They can only look forward and see the lecturer or teacher. 
Arranged in the way they are to get the most from a lecture. 
The lecturer can see what everyone is doing and can catch people out, people in the lecture are being controlled because of this, but you aren't forced to. You are expected to follow a code of behaviour. 
Register is another form of surveillance, attend the classes because you have to sign the register and can't not do this, not because you want to go to it.

Being forced to learn in a certain way by having things laid out and different systems in place. Train people into these different ways, which is a form of discipline that it put in place mentally, by yourself. No teacher/person in power has forced it upon you.

Locked filing cabinets, contain info on each staff. When you see how much for each person is recorded, it makes you think that every action is recorded, so you think that you cant be caught out and conform to the behaviour of the institute. 

Swipe in system to monitor the staff within the institute. No action is taken upon the use or no use of this system, but it makes you think that you should conform to the system and use it to make sure you are following the expectations of the institute.

Cameras within the institute, again recording what you have been doing.

IT office - they can open any networked desktop up on there computer to view anyones files etc. Every website is recorded, monitor the keystrokes on your keyboard within your computer.
Again surveillance of every staff and student within the institutes makes them know that they need to conform.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POWER, KNOWLEDGE AND THE BODY. ‘power relations have an immediate hold upon it [the body]; they invest it, mark it, train it, torture it, force it to carry out tasks, to perform ceremonies, to emit signs’ (Foucault 1975)
- A mental process that has a physical effect on our body. 

Disciplinary Society produces what Foucault calls:- ‘docile bodies’.
 - Self monitoring
 - Self-correcting
 - Obedient bodies
A soldier is a good example of this.

Disciplinary Techniques
“That the techniques of discipline and ‘gentle punishment’ have crossed the threshold from work to play shows how pervasive they have become within modern western societies” 
(Danaher, Schirato & Webb 2000)  

Cult of health - everything we eat and see about food, it always tell us about the health implications and what each food contains.
Images of what your body should look like and what you should of exercise wise.
- Everyone starts to act up to this gaze, because it is shown so much and read so much about it, you start to believe this and do it yourself.
- Gym - open plan, windows etc - show off your body, show that you have the perfect body and conforming to society.

Cult of the ideal body

The TV today shows many things through adverts, when watching these you are shown what they can could to you/effect your life and by seeing these over and over again, you take on the ideas of them and go do them/buy them. They are forcing you to do this without actually making you do it.

Foucault and Power
- His definition is not a top-down model as with Marxism

- power is not a thing or a capacity people have – it is a relation between different individuals and groups, and only exists when it is being exercised.
- the exercise of power relies on there being the capacity for power to be resisted
- ‘Where there is power there is resistance’

Constant panoptic system - try and defeat the state.

Social media interesting system, aware that everything you put up there is observed and monitored, everyone will see it and have a reaction to what you do.
This makes you behave in a different way.
Present in a different way to which you normally would, you can pay up to facebook and make a fake identity within a social media system. Everyone will believe what you put as it is from you, but you may not actually think/believe in that.

What to take away from the lecture:
- Michel Foucault
- Panopticism as a form of discipline
- Techniques of the body
- Docile Bodies